Frequently Asked Questions

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What is does Ingress Protection (IP) rating mean?

IP Ratings

IP ratings International Protection ratings are covered in Australian Standard AS1939

The standard utilises a two digit code to specify the degree of particle and water resistance of a luminaire.

The first digit indicates the degree of protection of the interior from the ingress of solid foreign objects. The second digit indicates the degree of protection of the interior from the ingress of water.

First Digit Second Digit

Not tested (no protection specified)


Not tested (no protection specified)


No protection provided


No protection provided


Protection against entry of objects larger than 50 square mm


Protection against drops of water falling vertically


Protection against entry of objects larger than 12 square mm


Protection against drops of water falling vertically when the luminaire is tilted up to 15 degrees from its normal position


Protection against entry of objects larger than 2.5 square mm


Protection from entry of water spray from angle of up to 60 degrees from vertical


Protection against entry of objects larger than 1.0 square mm


Protection from entry of water splashes or spray from any direction


Protection against entry of dust in sufficient quantity to prevent satisfactory operation


Protection from a low pressure jet of water in any direction


Complete protection against entry of dust


Protection against heavy seas or a strong jet of water in any direction


Protection against immersion up to 1 metre


Protection against submersion over 1 metre

What does MIL STD 810F mean?

MIL STD 810F is a series of performance and manufacturing guidelines set by the US Department of Defence for military and commercial equipment and applications. These guidelines specify allowable parts and environmental condition ranges that a tool or other device must be able to operate in to meet compliance.

MIL-STD 810 test method is used to generate confidence in the environmental worthiness and overall durability of material system design. The testing process follows guidelines which include program documentation, program roles, test standards and laboratory test method guidelines for all categories.

The laboratory test methods are broken down into 24 categories. The required compliance test categories include:

- Environment MIL-STD 810F Test
- Low Pressure (Altitude) Method 500.4
- High Temperature Method 501.4
- Low Temperature Method 502.4
- Temperature Shock Method 503.4
- Contamination by Fluids Method 504
- Solar Radiation (Sunshine) Method 505.4
- Rain Method 506.4
- Humidity Method 507.4
- Fungus Method 508.5
- Salt Fog Method 509.4
- Sand and Dust Method 510.4
- Explosive Atmosphere Method 511.4
- Immersion Method 512.4
- Acceleration Method 513.5
- Vibration Method 514.5
- Acoustic Noise Method 515.5
- Shock Method 516.5
- Pyroshock Method 517
- Acidic Atmosphere Method 518
- Gunfire Vibration Method 519.5
- Temperature, Humidity, Vibration, and Altitude Method 520.2
- Icing/Freezing Rain Method 521.2
- Ballistic Shock Method 522
- Vibro-Acoustic/Temperature Method 523.2

Before testing can begin, the item has to have environmental exposure, which means that the test item is run under standard ambient conditions to ensure the item is operating properly and to ensure pretest baseline performance data is collected.

The actual tests are carried out according to pre-defined test plans and criteria. The tests can be laboratory or natural environment field tests, or a combination, which ever applies. The test procedure is dependent on the environment tested. The procedure(s) and its execution provide the basis for collecting the necessary information.

After completion of each environmental test, the post-test data is examined and recorded in accordance with material specifications and program guidelines. The results are compared with the pre-test data. The post test record includes: test sequence used, deviations from planned test program, performance data, test conditions and a signature of the test team, to name a few. A final test report will be created for each test which includes an analysis of the test results.

What do the GPS Technical terms mean?

GPS Terms Glossary

Absolute Positioning
Positioning mode in which a position is identified with respect to a well-defined coordinate system, commonly a geocentric system (i.e., a system whose point of origin coincides with the center of mass of the earth).

A data file that contains orbit information on all satellites, clock corrections, and atmospheric delay parameters. It is transmitted by a GPS satellite to a GPS receiver, where it facilitates rapid satellite vehicle acquisition within GPS recievers.

Anywhere fix
The ability of a receiver to start position calculations without being given an approximate location and time.

A value that describes a feature. Features may have zero to many attributes. The attributes for features are described in the data dictionary. Values for attributes are entered while collecting the data. An example of an attribute would be the name of a building, or the height of a tree.

The number of hours per day that a particular location has sufficient satellites (above the specified elevation angle and less than the specified PDOP value) to make a GPS position fix. 

A baseline consists of a pair of stations for which simultaneous GPS data has been collected.

Base station
Also called a reference station. A receiver that is set up on a known location specifically to collect data for differentially correcting rover files. The base station calculates the error for each satellite and, through differential correction, improves the accuracy of GPS positions collected at unknown locations by a roving GPS receiver.

Base station file
The data file created by the base station. Base station files follow a naming pattern: A7-Month-Day-Hour.SSF, such as A7110413.SSF for a file created on November 4th during the hour of 13:00 (GMT). The base station will write a new file every time the hour changes. If there is an error in a file or the station has an error writing the file, the new file for that hour will have extension .001.

C/A code
The standard (Clear/Acquisition) GPS code; also known as the "civilian code" or S-code.

A radio wave having at least one characterstic (e.g. frequency, amplitude, phase) that can be varied from a known reference value by modulation.

Carrier-aided tracking
A signal processing strategy that uses the GPS carrier signal to achieve an exact lock on the pseudo random code. More accurate than standard approach.

Carrier beat phase
The phase of the signal which remains when the incoming Doppler-shifted satellite carrier signal is beat (the difference frequency signal is generated) with the nominally-constant reference frequency generated by the receiver.

Carrier frequency
The frequency of the unmodulated fundamental output of a radio transistor.

A channel of a GPS receiver consists of the radio frequency, circuitry, and software necessary to tune the signal from a signal GPS satellite.

Clock bias
The difference the clock's indicated time and true universal time.

Code phase GPS
GPS measurements based on the C/A code.

Constant offset
In some cases you will be unable to receive GPS signals while mapping a desired feature. A constant offset can be configured that will allow you to stand a distance away from the feature, yet record the feature's position.

Refers to either the specific set of satellites used in calculating positions or all the satellites visible to a GPS receiver at one time.

Control segment
A world-wide network of GPS monitoring and control stations that ensure the accuracy of satellite positions and their clocks.

Coordinate System
What mapping system is used to represent postions. Some examples are latitude/longitude and state plane. The data logger by default uses latitude/longitude. You can convert your data into the desired coordinate system using PFinder.

Cycle slip
A discontinuity of an interger number of cycles in the measured carrier beat phase resulting from a temporary loss-of-lock in the carrier tracking loop of a GPS receiver. 

Data Dictionary
Defines the fields you will fill during data collection using the GPS equipment. Very similar to describing the fields in a record for a database program.

Data message
A 1500 bit message included in the GPS signal which reports the satellite's location, clock corrections, and health.

Changing technology has led to different values for the same geographic points over time. Datum refers to which standard you are using for known points. If you are going to use your collected data with prexisting data, you need to match up the datum and coordinate systems. Some examples of datum are NAD-27 and WGS-84 (North American Datum 1927, World Geodetic System 1984).

Differential Correction
Using either GPS positions collected from a base station (located on a known position) simultaneously or RTCM broadcasts to increase the accuracy of your position information.

Dilution of Precision
The multiplicative factor that modifies range error. It is caused solely by the geometry between the user and their set of satellites; known as DOP or GDOP.

The introduction of digital noise. This is the process the Department of Defense (DoD) uses to add inaccuracy to GPS signals to induce Selective Availability.

Elevation mask
see Satellite elevation mask.

The predictions of current satellite position that are transmitted to the user in the data message.

Fast-switching channel
A single channel which rapidly samples a number of satellite ranges. "Fast" implies that the switching time is sufficiently short (2 to 5 milliseconds) to recover the data message.

Any item about which you want position information. Your data dictionary will describe the features you wish to collect. A feature may be a single point, a line, or an area.

Geodetic surveys
Global surveys done to establish control networks (comprised of reference or control points) as a basis for accurate land mapping.

Geometric Dilution of Precision
See Dilution of Precision.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS)
This is the Russian counterpart to GPS. GLONASS provides worldwide coverage, however, its accuracy performance os optimized for the northern latitudes. and is specificed as identical to that of GPS SPS.


isafe classification explained

SPOT2 Satellite GPS Tracker-orange